Wednesday, February 25, 2015

US Sea Level North of New York City 'Jumped by 128mm'

From Manuel: Zorra from Hollow Earth once said that the Galactics intends to RAISE to the surface the fallen continent of Atlantis which sits right in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean. The people of Atlantis came to Earths surface coming from the star of Atlantia and conquered the territories of Lemuria and that of the Pleaides and thus resulted into a major war.  And by invitation from the Atlanteans their allies the Annunakis came to Earth and settled in an area called Sumeria in southern Iraq. This research could be one of the indication that the continent of Atlantis is slowly inching its way into the surface world and is making the ocean water level to rise. There's no need to be alarmed though as the Galactics are taking care of the situation. At the moment, a great portion of Atlantis is smacked or sandwiched right inside the Earths crust. Atlantis may rise again in order to be seen once and for all as evidence of the Earths forgotten history and learn from the mistakes of the past that aggression against other people should never be repeated again.

Satellite image

Sea levels along the northeast coast of the US rose by record levels during 2009-2010, a study has found. Sea levels north of New York City rose by 128mm in two years, according to a report in the journal, Nature Communications. Coastal areas will need to prepare for short term and extreme sea level events, say US scientists. Climate models suggest extreme sea level rises will become more common this century. "The extreme sea level rise event during 2009-10 along the northeast coast of North America is unprecedented during the past century," Prof Jianjun Yin of the University of Arizona told BBC News. "Statistical analysis indicates that it is a 1-in-850 year event." Tidal records Scientists at the University of Arizona and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in New Jersey studied records of tidal levels along the east coast of the US and Canada.
They divided the coastline into three areas: north of New York City, New York City to Cape Hatteras on the coast of North Carolina, and south of Cape Hatteras.

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In addition to long-term and gradual sea level rise, coastal communities will need to prepare for short and extreme sea level rise events”
Prof Jianjun Yin University of Arizona.
They identified what they call an extreme sea-level rise during 2009-10, when the coastal sea level north of New York City jumped by 128mm.
"When coastal storms occur, extreme sea levels can lead to elevated storm surge," said Prof Jianjun Yin.
"In addition to long-term and gradual sea level rise, coastal communities will need to prepare for short and extreme sea level rise events."
Commenting on the study, Prof Rowan Sutton, climate scientist at the National Centre for Atmospheric Science, University of Reading, said climate models suggest an increase in such events.
"This study identifies a record breaking high sea level event that occurred along part of the US east coast in 2009-10.
"There is strong evidence that the likelihood of such events has been increased by climate change, and that we should expect more such events in the future.
"This example illustrates how individual extreme events are influenced by multiple factors - in this case the global rise of sea levels, regional changes in ocean circulation, and wind patterns."
Dr Dan Hodson, also from the University of Reading, said the analysis underlined the importance of understanding the connections between surges in sea levels and ocean currents.
"Sea level change is a complex phenomenon, especially on the regional scale, where changes to the global ocean circulation can play a major role," he said.
"The east coast of North America is quite close to an area of active, fast ocean currents, and so is quite sensitive to changing ocean circulation."
He said the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), a major current in the Atlantic Ocean, had implications for Europe and Africa as well as the US.
Research at the University of Reading has shown how it could make British summers wetter and may influence rainfall patterns in parts of Africa.

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Rate of sea-level rise 'steeper'

Sea level Different effects in different places can either mask or exaggerate the signal

The rate at which the global oceans have risen in the past two decades is more significant than previously recognised, say US-based scientists.
Their reassessment of tide gauge data from 1900-1990 found that the world's seas went up more slowly than earlier estimates - by about 1.2mm per year.
But this makes the 3mm per year tracked by satellites since 1990 a much bigger trend change as a consequence.
It could mean some projections for future rises having to be revisited.
"Our estimates from 1993 to 2010 agree with [the prior] estimates from modern tide gauges and satellite altimetry, within the bounds of uncertainty. But that means that the acceleration into the last two decades is far worse than previously thought," said Dr Carling Hay from Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

"This new acceleration is about 25% higher than previous estimates," she told BBC News.
Dr Hay and colleagues report their re-analysis in this week's edition of the journal Nature
Tide gauges have been in operation in some places for hundreds of years, but pulling their data into a coherent narrative of worldwide sea-level change is fiendishly difficult.
Historically, their deployment has been sparse, predominantly at mid-latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere, and only at coastal sites. In other words, the instrument record is extremely patchy.
What is more, the data needs careful handling because it hides all kinds of "contamination".

Scientists must account for effects that mask the true signal - such as tectonic movements that might force the local land upwards - and those that exaggerate it - such as groundwater extraction, which will make the land dip.
Attention needs to be paid also to natural oscillations in ocean behaviour, which can make waters rise and fall on decadal timescales.
Previous efforts to untangle the record concluded that sea levels rose through much of the last century by around 1.6-1.9mm per year.
These figures were included in the most recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report on the state of the planet.
But these numbers have been somewhat problematic because they are at odds with the calculated contributions to global ocean rise - namely, the volumes of water coming from melting land ice, the expansion of the seas from global warming, and changes in the amount of global water held on the continents. Simply put, the calculated contributions were about 0.5mm per year short of what previous tide-gauge assessments were suggesting they should be.

Dr Hay's and colleagues' study makes another attempt to sort through the instrument record, and they find the 1900-1990 rises to have been overstated.
Their rate for this period is 1.2mm per year, which neatly closes the contributions "budget gap".
Dr Hay said: "What we have done, which is a bit different from past studies, is use physical models and statistical models to try to look for underlying patterns in the messy tide gauge data observations.
"Each of the different contributions actually produces a unique pattern, or fingerprint, of sea-level change. And what we try to do is model these underlying patterns and then use our statistical approach to look for the patterns in the tide gauge observations. That allows us to infer global information from the very limited records." 

In the last IPCC report, global mean sea-level rise for 2081−2100 was projected to be between 26cm (at the low end) and 82cm (at the high end), depending on the greenhouse emissions path this century.
If the Hay analysis is reproduced by peer groups, it may prompt the scientific community to revisit these future sea-level projections and some of the other estimates that envisage even larger changes in the decades ahead.
Commenting, Dr Paolo Cipollini at the UK's National Oceanography Centre, said the Nature study was an important new contribution to the field.
Having a good view of historical change, he explained, would allow researchers to test their models of the processes driving sea-level rise by permitting them to do "hindcasts" - to check whether those models could reproduce the past before making confident projections of the future.
"But let's not lose sight of the central message that at the moment we have a very strong consensus on the 3.2mm per year of sea-level rise coming from satellites and modern tide gauges, and that any future projection should be based mainly on our understanding of the processes of sea-level rise, which really we need quantify better for later IPCC reports."
The "gold standard" satellite record of sea-level rise is maintained by the Jason series of spacecraft, which have an unbroken record of measurements stretching back to 1992.

Jason-3, the latest incarnation, launches this year, along with the EU's Sentinel-3 spacecraft, which has been tasked with starting another continuous - and independent - sequence of observations.

The Sentinel-3 satellite is intended to be a continuous programme, like Jason before it

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